Ubuntu 16.04 LTS for Human Beans

This page collects information to have Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus) in a laptop or desktop as usable as possible for Human Beans willing to use it for production.

1.1. Enable Ubuntu Partners

First enable “partners” repos, since we will use it later to install skype, at least.

Contents of the updated /etc/apt/sources.list
## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's
## 'partner' repository.
## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by Canonical and the
## respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu users.
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner

1.2. Extra repositories

Useful extra repositories

Command on a console
xavi@penguinbookpro:~$ sudo su
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:nilarimogard/webupd8
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:danielrichter2007/grub-customizer
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:webupd8team/java
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:bit-team/stable
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:jtaylor/keepass
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:marutter/rrutter
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:shutter/ppa
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:tuxonice/ppa
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:atareao/telegram
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:maarten-baert/simplescreenrecorder
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:yg-jensge/shotwell
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:philip5/extra
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:mkusb/ppa
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:hamishmb/myppa

# Add the release PGP keys for syncthing repo:
root@computer# curl -s https://syncthing.net/release-key.txt | apt-key add -
# Add the "release" channel to your APT sources for updated-twice-per-month syncthing daemon:
root@computer# echo "deb https://apt.syncthing.net/ syncthing release" | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/syncthing.list

Press enter each time when requested.

After keys are imported, you can quit from the root session with “exit”:

root@penguinbookpro:/home/xavi# exit

Nowadays, you can update your sources list, and install launchpad-getkeys:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install launchpad-getkeys

Launchpad-getkeys allows you to automatically import all the missing Launchpad GPG keys. Run the following command:

Command on a console
sudo launchpad-getkeys
sudo apt-get update

To use Launchpad Getkeys when you’re behind a proxy:
sudo launchpad-getkeys -p http://proxydomain.com:port

1.3. Install with interaction

Install programs which require interaction, like a confirmation step, a new password or user interaction of some sort.

  • mysql-server, for the webserver in localhost, etc.
  • phpmyadmin, to manage mysqldatabases easily through a web browser
  • apachetop, for monitoring apache in real time
  • ttf-mscorefonts-installer, required by other packages (PlayOnLinux, maybe?)
  • a few others like java, and network filesystem network packages

Command on a console
sudo apt-get install -y ttf-mscorefonts-installer nfs-common libnss-winbind winbind cifs-utils oracle-java8-installer libdvd-pkg

If you need a webserver & php/mysql:

Command on a console
sudo apt-get install -y mysql-server phpmyadmin apachetop

1.4. Install the rest in program sets

You can then install all the rest of the required and useful software for common tasks (including video editing, screencasting, etc). Note that the first package names until wcatalan are localization packages for our local language, and you can skip them or adapt for your language, etc.

Command on a console
sudo apt-get install -y apt-show-versions backintime-common backintime-gnome bluefish bluefish-plugins bum bzr-explorer cairo-dock cairo-dock-plug-ins cheese chromium-browser classicmenu-indicator corkscrew create-resources cups-pdf diodon filezilla firefox-locale-ca flashplugin-installer flvstreamer gdebi geany geany-plugins gimp-plugin-registry gir1.2-gst-plugins-bad-1.0 git git-core glabels gnome-alsamixer gnupg2 gparted grub2-splashimages grub-customizer gscan2pdf gstreamer0.10-plugins-good gstreamer1.0-fluendo-mp3 gstreamer1.0-plugins-bad gstreamer1.0-plugins-ugly gtk-recordmydesktop gufw guvcview gwenrename gwenview handbrake hibernate htop hyphen-ca icatalan icc-profiles-free indicator-cpufreq indicator-netspeed inkscape ispell kazam kde-l10n-ca kdenlive keepass2 keepass2-doc kile kipi-plugins krename krusader kupfer language-pack-ca language-pack-ca-base language-pack-gnome-ca language-pack-gnome-ca-base language-pack-kde-ca lftp libcurl4-gnutls-dev libdbd-mysql libgstreamer-plugins-base0.10-dev libgtk2.0-dev libmysqlclient-dev libreoffice-help-ca libreoffice-l10n-ca libsyntax-highlight-engine-kate-perl linux-firmware luckybackup mailutils mc meld mobile-atlas-creator mythes-ca nautilus-actions nautilus-columns nautilus-dropbox nautilus-scripts-manager oggvideotools ogmrip ogmtools openjdk-8-jre openshot openshot-doc openssh-server oxideqt-codecs p7zip p7zip-full p7zip-rar pavucontrol pdfchain pdfmod pdfsam pepperflashplugin-nonfree pidgin pidgin-indicator pidgin-plugin-pack pidgin-skype playonlinux powernap qemu-system qshutdown qtgstreamer-plugins-qt5 scribus scribus-doc scribus-template sendemail shutter simplescreenrecorder skype sshfs synaptic syncthing syncthing-gtk telegram telegram-purple terminator thunderbird thunderbird-locale-ca totem-plugins totem-plugins-extra transmageddon ubuntu-restricted-addons ubuntu-restricted-extras unetbootin unity-tweak-tool unrar uswsusp variety virt-manager virtualbox virtualbox-dkms vlc vpx-tools wcatalan webp wine winetricks x2goclient xauth xfonts-100dpi xfonts-75dpi xfonts-base xsane xul-ext-lightning gcolor2 gedit-plugins kio-mtp shotwell digikam5 testdisk geeqie pyrenamer kwalletmanager firefox libvdpau-va-gl1 soundconverter keychain mtp-tools mtpfs mkusb mkusb-nox usb-pack-efi ddrescue-gui torbrowser-launcher ibm-java80-jre icedtea-8-plugin pdfposter posterazor

And if you need R and similar developer programs, you can install also:

Command on a console
sudo apt-get install -y  r-recommended  r-cran-xml libgraphviz-dev libcairo2-dev r-cran-cairodevice freeglut3 freeglut3-dev r-cran-rglpk r-cran-rgl r-cran-misc3d libx11-dev libxt-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev libxml2-dev r-cran-xml libgraphviz-dev libcairo2-dev r-cran-cairodevice freeglut3 freeglut3-dev r-cran-rglpk bwidget tk-table libv8-dev r-cran-rjava libmpfr-dev libc6-i386 libssl-dev texlive-latex-extra texlive-lang-spanish eclipse ess libx11-dev libxml2-dev libxml2:i386 libxt-dev linklint links2 r-cran-misc3d r-cran-rgl subversion texmaker tk-dev unaccent xvfb libgdal1-dev libproj-dev r-cran-rmysql

If you need webserver and other typical programs intended for servers, you can install this other set too:

Command on a console
sudo apt-get install -y  php-sqlite3 postfix rabbitvcs-cli rabbitvcs-core rabbitvcs-gedit rabbitvcs-nautilus rapidsvn subversion php-memcache php-gettext php-intl php-mbstring php-pspell php-zip composer php-curl php-xmlrpc php-intl php-mcrypt php5.6-curl php5.6-xmlrpc php5.6-intl php5.6-mcrypt php7.1-mcrypt php7.1-curl php7.1-xmlrpc php7.1-intl php5.6-mysql php7.1-mysql poppler-utils php-memcached memcached

If you want to have locale packages such as Catalan, you might be intersted in installaing these extra packages:

Command on a console
sudo apt-get install -y  aspell-ca hunspell-ca

And for Spanish:

Command on a console
sudo apt-get install -y  aspell-es hyphen-es ispanish language-pack-gnome-es hunspell-es myspell-es mythes-es wspanish

Removed packages from the list compared to Ubuntu 14.04 by the time of this writing (April 23rd, 2016), and the corresponding replacement with somewhat equivalent featureset in 16.04

  • kdesvn -> rapidsvn | rabbitvcs (integrated in Nautilus)
  • jitsi -> installed by hand frmo their website, v 2.8.x
  • nautilus-open-terminal
  • totem-plugins-dvb-daemon
  • linux-firmware-nonfree
  • gstreamer1.0-plugins-bad-multiverse -> gstreamer1.0-plugins-bad
  • indicator-multiload

Other useful programs installed by hand in a later stage:

You can test email sending in the command line with:

echo testing | mail -s test_subject youremail@example.com

1.4.1. Main changes noticed for human beans


  • Bluetooth works by default with most devices
  • Battery icon displays battery info for connectd bluetooth devices using batteries (mouse, keyboard, etc)
  • Icon to edit microphone volume levels shows up automatically on the top bar when the microphone is in use


  • “USB startup creator” doesn’t let you choose a persistent partition file when creating bootable usb disks with ubuntu distros.

1.4.2. Extra R packages to be installed

Usual R packages that are useful in many cases. You can install them in an R console in a terminal (Type “R” in the terminal to launch the R console), or through RStudio command line.

Run in an R console
install.packages(c("devtools", "plotly", "Nozzle.R1", "VennDiagram", "stringr", "xml2", "parallel", "data.table", "doParallel", "xtable", "plyr", "dplyr", "reshape2", "rjson", "d3heatmap", "htmlwidgets", "googleVis", "doMC", "Rcmdr", "knitr", "checkpoint", "XLConnect", "sem", "rmarkdown", "relimp", "effects", "aplpack", "flexdashboards", "addinslist"))
library(devtools);if(!require(rCharts)) install_github('rCharts', 'ramnathv')

1.4.3. Install new php versions and switch between them

Ubuntu 16.04 comes with php 7.0, and some php applications might still fail with php 7.0 .Therefore, in some cases, it might be sensible to have both php 7.0 and php 5.x, so that you can choose which version to use for your needs at any time.

You can do so with:

xavi@computer# sudo su
root@computer# add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
root@computer# apt-get update
root@computer# apt-get install php7.1 php5.6 php5.6-mysql php-gettext php5.6-mbstring php-xdebug libapache2-mod-php5.6 libapache2-mod-php7.1 php5.6-curl php5.6-gd php5.6-mcrypt php5.6-xml php5.6-xmlrpc libphp5.6-embed libphp7.1-embed php-memcache php5.6-intl php5.6-zip php7.1-curl php7.1-zip php5.6-sqlite3 php7.1-sqlite3 php7.1-mcrypt php5.6-mysql php7.1-mysql

Installing both php5.6 & php7.1 resulted in a lot of complaining from apt and lots of conflicts. The first suggested resolution was to remove all the stock php5 packages so that PHP 5.6 could be installed - so I just accepted the first suggestion.

The config files are all in /etc/php/5.6 and /etc/php/7.1 respectively - inside here is where you can configure which extensions are loaded, set the ini settings, and everything else for each version in isolation.

So to switch from php 5.6 to php 7.1 you need to do two things:

# For php in web apps
user@computer:/# sudo a2dismod php5.6; sudo a2enmod php7.1; sudo service apache2 restart
# For php-cli in the command line
user@computer:/# sudo ln -sfn /usr/bin/php7.1 /etc/alternatives/php
user@computer:/# php -v
# PHP 7.0.6-1+donate.sury.org~xenial+1 (cli) ( NTS )
# Copyright (c) 1997-2016 The PHP Group
# Zend Engine v3.0.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2016 Zend Technologies
#    with Zend OPcache v7.0.6-dev, Copyright (c) 1999-2016, by Zend Technologies
#    with Xdebug v2.4.0, Copyright (c) 2002-2016, by Derick Rethans

or from php7.1 to php5.6:

# For php in web apps
user@computer:/# sudo a2dismod php7.1 ; sudo a2enmod php5.6 ; sudo service apache2 restart
# For php-cli in the command line
user@computer:/# sudo ln -sfn /usr/bin/php5.6 /etc/alternatives/php
user@computer:/# php -v
# PHP 5.6.21-1+donate.sury.org~xenial+2 (cli) 
# Copyright (c) 1997-2016 The PHP Group
# Zend Engine v2.6.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2016 Zend Technologies
#    with Zend OPcache v7.0.6-dev, Copyright (c) 1999-2016, by Zend Technologies

From the commandline, I have both php5.6 and php7.1 available as commands. I also still have a php command - look in /etc/alternatives to see that it symlinks to a particular version of PHP cli*. You can also quickly check which yours is using by running php -v.

Remember that php.ini and other files with settings are not in /etc/php5 anymore but in /etc/php/version/

1.5. PHP Debugger

You may use a nice (but closed source) IDE such as PHPStorm (which provides a version at no cost for FLOSS projects such as Tiki), or stick with pure FLOSS apps such as Aptana Studio IDE.


1.6. Laptops

For laptops:

sudo apt install powertop tlp

For Macbook laptops:

sudo apt install gpomme wmpomme

For Battery saving - Suspend and Hibernate - Tuxonice Kernel

sudo apt-get install tuxonice-userui linux-generic-tuxonice linux-headers-generic-tuxonice

For hybrid graphic cards:
Intel + Nvidia:

Intel + ATI

1.7. Ensure Syncthing uses latest daemon binary

Open syncthing-gtk UI, and update the syncthing daemon location to /usr/bin/syncthing if it doesn’t get it from there by default, which will be v0.14.16 at the time of this writing xavier.depedro .

Click to expand
Click to expand

Then restart the daemon to get the new and updated binary from the right path, in case you had a previous version of the daemon elsewhere (by default syncthing-gtk downloads a not-so-up-to-date version for you from elsewhere in this path: /home/username/.local/bin/syncthing.x64)

Otherwise, syncthing-gtk would download an earlier version of the daemon (for instance, v0.14.9 as of the time of this writing xavier.depedro which is not compatible with the v0.14.14 of the daemon in the sync.evoludata.com or Windows boxes at this time)

1.8. Fix hibernation

Trial 1

Taken from: http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=2314905

With the new systemd configuration, the Unity menu’s “hibernate” option does not call on pm-hibernate. It instead uses the hibernate and sleep service of logind / systemd. I’m using a tuxonice kernel, and the tlp power management setup on a thinkpad w520, running Ubuntu 16.04 (devel). I think this article is still relevant even if you don’t have tlp or tuxonice, since it’s systemd that changes how suspend and hibernate work.

When this laptop suspends or hibernates, sometimes the wifi stops working when it wakes back up. The solution is to unload the wifi device driver module prior to sleep, and then reload it upon resume, the way the “hibernate” script does, and “pm-hibernate” also did.


Contents of the previous file
# Unload and reload the wifi modules over suspend / resume.

Description=WIFI modules unload/reload over suspend/resume

ExecStart=/sbin/modprobe -r iwldvm
ExecStop=/sbin/modprobe iwldvm


The other problem I had was that, using tuxonice, the user ui program was not visible during the hibernation process. I fixed this with:

sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/tuxonice-vtswitch.service

Contents of the previous file
# Switch vt for tuxonice UI

Description=Switch VT for tuxonice UI

ExecStart=/bin/chvt 63 ; /bin/sh -c "/bin/echo -ne '\033%@' > /dev/tty63"
ExecStop=/bin/chvt 7


Enable them with:

sudo systemctl enable wifi-modules-unload-reload.service
sudo systemctl enable tuxonice-vtswitch.service

This worked well in the macbookpro laptop from 2008.

Trial 2

If the previous trick doesn’t work (like in a hp laptop with dual graphics card), try this other one:

sudo gedit /etc/default/grub



GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash acpi_backlight=vendor acpi_osi='!Windows 2013' acpi_osi='!Windows 2012'"

sudo update-grub
reboot twice!!

However, this didn’t work for me. Hibernation or suspending fails in that computer with dual graphics card (ati + intel)

1.9. Re-enable hibernation from menus

First check if hibernation is compatible with your computer

You should save all of your work before hibernating the computer, just in case something goes wrong and your open applications and documents cannot be recovered when you switch on the computer again.

Run this in a console

sudo pm-hibernate

Enter your password when prompted.

After you computer turns off, switch it back on. Did your open applications re-open?

If hibernate doesn’t work, check if your swap partition is at least as large as your available RAM.

If the hibernate test works, you can continue to use the sudo pm-hibernate command when you want to hibernate.

You can also enable the hibernate option in the menus. To do that, use your favorite text editor to create

sudo nano /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/com.ubuntu.enable-hibernate.pkla

Add the following to the file and save:

[Re-enable hibernate by default]

Alternatively, if the previous doesn’t work for some reason, you can edit this file:

sudo nano /var/lib/polkit-1/localauthority/10-vendor.d/com.ubuntu.desktop.pkla

Search for the sections related to “hibernate”, and set ResultActive=no to ResultActive=yes

[Disable hibernate by default in upower]

[Disable hibernate by default in logind]

Re-enable hibernate in xfce panels
See http://www.bio.brandeis.edu/~shaikh/linux/suspend.htm

sudo nano /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/com.ubuntu.desktop.pkla

Content to add:

[Re-enable hibernate by default]

1.10. Add mate desktop

From: http://ubunlog.com/ya-disponible-mate-1-12-1-para-ubuntu-15-10-y-16-04-lts/

Command on a console
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ubuntu-mate-dev/xenial-mate
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install mate-core mate-desktop-environment mate-desktop-environment-extras mate-dock-applet

If you need to remove it for some reason and reverse the system to its previous state, do:

Command on a console
sudo apt-get install ppa-purge
sudo ppa-purge ppa:ubuntu-mate-dev/xenial-mate

Image Image

1.11. Add Acrobat Reader 9.x

By default you can get Adobe Acrobat 8.x in the repositories, as far as I see. But you can download 9.x version in English from Adobe website: http://get.adobe.com/reader/otherversions/

For instance, this version: AdbeRdr9.5.5-1_i386linux_enu.deb

For 32-bit system:

sudo dpkg -i ~/Downloads/AdbeRdr9.5.5-1_i386linux_enu.deb; sudo apt-get -f install

For 64-bit system:

The easier way to install Adobe Reader DEB on 64 bit Ubuntu is using Gdebi, which will automatically install all dependencies.

sudo dpkg -i --force-architecture AdbeRdr9.5.5-1_i386linux_enu.deb; sudo apt-get -f install

1.12. Pair Bluetooth devices

Most devices work by default with standard procedures since the upgrade to Ubuntu 16.04 (they didn’t in Ubuntu 14.04).

But Apple Bluetooth Keyboard seems to fail (since Ubuntu Jaunty in 2009, according to some posts elsewhere). I dream to find some valid workaround...

xavi@penguinbookpro:~$ hcitool scan
Scanning ...
	00:C0:DF:01:62:22	Targus Bluetooth Laser Mouse for Mac (AMB08)
	00:22:41:DD:36:4B	n/a

My solution was to buy a new bluetooth keyboard with backlight in the keys, for ~ 30€ in Amazon.
It works as is with default procedures. And the battery icon in the top bar of the desktop also displays the battery status of the bluetooth devices (nice!): mouse, keyboard, ... aside of the klaptop battery.

1.13. Tweaks to run Tiki Wiki CMS

Allow runing mod rewrite in Apache

1.13.1. Fix apache2.4 default settings to run Tiki

Edit /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default

and change docroot from /var/www to /var/ww/tiki or your custom path, AllowOVerride from None to All, and ensure that the syntax to allow access to override .htaccess file is set with the syntax for Apache 2.4 (“Require all granted”) and not with the former one for Apache2.2 (“Order allow,deny” and “Allow from all”)

The file should be left as like:

root@coprinus:~# cat /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf
<VirtualHost *:80>
	ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost

	DocumentRoot /var/www/html
	<Directory />
		Options FollowSymLinks
		AllowOverride None
	<Directory /var/www/html/>
		Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
		AllowOverride All
     	#Order allow,deny
        #Allow from all
        Require all granted

	ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
	<Directory "/usr/lib/cgi-bin">
		AllowOverride None
		Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
		Order allow,deny
		Allow from all

	ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log

	# Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
	# alert, emerg.
	LogLevel warn

	CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined

    Alias /doc/ "/usr/share/doc/"
    <Directory "/usr/share/doc/">
        Options Indexes MultiViews FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride None
        Order deny,allow
        Deny from all
        Allow from ::1/128


enable also the mod rewrite in Apache

commands in a console
sudo a2enmod rewrite
sudo service apache2 restart

1.13.2. Install elasticsearch 5.x from repos


Commands on a console:

wget -qO - https://artifacts.elastic.co/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get install apt-transport-https
echo "deb https://artifacts.elastic.co/packages/5.x/apt stable main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/elastic-5.x.list
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install elasticsearch

Ubuntu 16.04 uses systemd, as it can be queried with:

ps -p 1

Running Elasticsearch with systemd

To configure Elasticsearch to start automatically when the system boots up, run the following commands:

sudo /bin/systemctl daemon-reload
sudo /bin/systemctl enable elasticsearch.service

Info provided in the console standard output:

Synchronizing state of elasticsearch.service with SysV init with /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install...
Executing /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install enable elasticsearch
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/elasticsearch.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/elasticsearch.service.

Elasticsearch can be started and stopped as follows:

sudo systemctl start elasticsearch.service
sudo systemctl stop elasticsearch.service

These commands provide no feedback as to whether Elasticsearch was started successfully or not. Instead, this information will be written in the log files located in /var/log/elasticsearch/.

By default the Elasticsearch service doesn’t log information in the systemd journal. To enable journalctl logging, the --quiet option must be removed from the ExecStart command line in the elasticsearch.service file.

When systemd logging is enabled, the logging information are available using the journalctl commands:

To tail the journal:

sudo journalctl -f

To list journal entries for the elasticsearch service:

sudo journalctl --unit elasticsearch

To list journal entries for the elasticsearch service starting from a given time:

sudo journalctl --unit elasticsearch --since  "2016-10-30 18:17:16"

Check man journalctl or https://www.freedesktop.org/software/systemd/man/journalctl.html for more command line options. Install also kibana 5.x from repos


If you don’t have that yet, see above to get the gpg-key, the apt-transport-https package and the repository url.

Commands on a console:

sudo apt-get install elasticsearch

Running Kibana with systemd

To configure Elasticsearch to start automatically when the system boots up, run the following commands:

sudo /bin/systemctl daemon-reload
sudo /bin/systemctl enable kibana.service

Info provided in the console standard output:

Synchronizing state of kibana.service with SysV init with /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install...
Executing /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install enable kibana

Kibana can be started and stopped as follows:

sudo systemctl start kibana.service
sudo systemctl stop kibana.service

These commands provide no feedback as to whether Kibana was started successfully or not. Instead, this information will be written in the log files located in /var/log/kibana/.

1.14. Connect remotely using X2Go server

Coprinus usually gets local IP: from eth0 (and or anoher one from wlan when used instead)

Since Freenx doesn’t seem to be easily installable in Ubuntu 14.04 servers (at least up to the time of this writing Xavi ). Therefore, we can use an open-source equivalent alternative, called x2go (x2goserver and x2goclient), which is maintained for GNU/Linux based servers, and with supported clients for GNU/Linux, Mac and Windows.

Quick howto to turn your machine into an X2Go server:

sudo apt-get install python-software-properties
sudo apt-add-repository ppa:x2go/stable
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install x2goserver x2goserver-xsession
sudo apt-get install x2gomatebindings  # if you use MATE/mubuntu
sudo apt-get install x2golxdebindings  # if you use LXDE/lubuntu

You also need to install some desktop environment which is supported by X2Go by default, and in our case, we will install one of the lightest desktops possible: LXDE (see http://wiki.x2go.org/doku.php/doc:de-compat for the full list)

sudo apt-get install -y lxde


  • Remember to install x2goclient in the client computer in order to connect to the server accordingly.
    sudo apt-get install x2goclient

1.15. Create Linux Live USB disks

You can add an extra repository to include mkusb dus (Do USB Stuff), which will allow you to create boot usb disks with persistence of changes in a reliable way for recent Ubuntu distros such as 16.04 LTS and newer. In such distros the default traditional methods such as USB Disk Creator or UnetBootIn no longer work in all cases as they did with earlier Ubuntu versions.

Derived from: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/mkusb

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:mkusb/ppa  # and press Enter
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install mkusb mkusb-nox usb-pack-efi

And system for a tweaked version of LXLE 16.04.2 (32 bits; 1-disk-fits-all-computers approach):

1.16. GNU ddrescue-gui repo

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:hamishmb/myppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install ddrescue-gui

See: http://www.ubuntugeek.com/ddrescue-gui-a-python-script-to-make-it-easier-to-use-ddrescue.html

1.17. Tested on

PC Laptop Coprinus

Coprinus” is the name of a laptop computer, with a somewhat blackish screencorner, and silverish cover. somewhat similar to the Coprinus generus of mushrooms.
Image Image

HP Pavilion dv6. i7 (4 real processors, & 4 virtual). 8Gb RAM. 1Tb Hard Drive. 2GB double gaphics card (ATI & internal).
Keyboard: foreign, 104 keys.

Computer bought at “Outlet PC” http://www.outlet-pc.es . Keyboard stickers bought on ebay for 4€ approx.

OS: Dual Boot

  1. Ubuntu 16.04 GNU/Linux 64 bits.
  2. Windows 7 Home

(dual boot from grub)

AMD hybrid Graphics card
Note for AMD hybrid graphics users: you can use fglrx-pxpress and AMD Indicator which are basically the equivalents of the tweaks elsewhere for AMD. See the Ubuntu wiki for more info.

Macbookpro Laptop Penguinbookpro

Ubuntu 16.04 LTS + MacOSX 1.5 + Win XP Pro, on a MacBookPro 5.5 laptop. A.k.a.: “Penguinbookpro

Macbookpro Add iSight webcam driver

Taken from: http://askubuntu.com/a/118201

Install some basic tool to handle the Driver (don’t worry about the path to the driver, sinc eyou’ll provide the driver itself in a later step).
Run this command in a terminal:

sudo apt-get install isight-firmware-tools

Skip the prompt to immediately load the driver file.

cd ~
# Download AppleUSBVideoSupport driver file (e.g. dl.getdropbox.com/u/332246/AppleUSBVideoSupport) and place it at your home folder ~
wget http://dl.getdropbox.com/u/332246/AppleUSBVideoSupport
sudo cp AppleUSBVideoSupport /lib/firmware/
sudo ift-extract -a /lib/firmware/AppleUSBVideoSupport
sudo nano /etc/default/acpi-support

Find MODULES and make it MODULES=”isight_usb”.

lsusb | grep -Po '(?<=:)(\d+)(?=.*iSight)'

This outputs the product ID of your specific iSight USB device. Remember this number. Mine is 8507. The default Ubuntu driver seems to be hardcoded for 8300, which is a problem.

sudo nano /etc/udev/rules.d/isight.rules

Add (and be sure to replace the “8507” with your product ID.):

ACTION=="add", SYSFS{idVendor}=="05ac", SYSFS{idProduct}=="8507", RUN+="/usr/lib/udev/ift-load --firmware /lib/firmware/isight.fw"

Shutdown/poweroff (not reboot or restart).

Boot again the computer.

If you don’t have Cheese yet, install it. Launch cheese program to test the webcam.

sudo apt-get install cheese; cheese

By this time, your webcam should be working nicely. :-)

1.18. Optional - Linkat 16.04 standard or lightweight

Tweak your install with Linkat apps (adapted for Catalonian Educational contexts):

This distribution has:

  • its own ubuntu repository,
  • a set of applications for the learning of kids and teenagers, organized based on age periods.
  • specific apps to help freezing desktops, user profiles, etc.
  • a minimal version of the distribution, based on Lubuntu (LXDE)
  • instructions to install mswindows-like desktop styles to make new users more comfortable with the look and feel of their usual desktop environments they are migrating from.
  • apply skeletons of the desktop environment to pre-existing users in the system

Alias names for this page:

16.04 | Ubuntu16 | Ubuntu 16 | Ubuntu1604 | php

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